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jupiter as emperor
Date: Tue, 11 Jan 1994
From: Michael Fraser
Subject: Jupiter as emperor?

I have seen references to the emperor being portrayed in art or described in literature in images and terms appropriate to Jupiter. Are there any examples (especially in art) of Jupiter depicted with imperial imagery?

Date: Tue, 11 Jan 1994
From: Daniel Curley
Subject: Re: Jupiter as emperor?

As a start, you might try book I of Ovid's Metamorphoses, in the Council of Gods sequence: vv. 168-76, in which Mt. Olympus is compared to the Palatine, and 199-205, which likens the gods's outburst to public reaction toward civil war (esp. sanguine Caesareo, although which Caesar is [still] a matter of debate).

Date: Tue, 11 Jan 1994
From: Doug Burgess
Subject: Re: Jupiter as emperor?

You might also look at John Ferguson's *The Religions ofthe Roman Empire* particularly chapter II (The Sky Father), pages 40-43. He mentions a dedication to Jupiter Optimus Maximus, from the end of the reign of Hadrian seems to honor the emperor and identify him with the god, after his death. Under Marcus Aurelius, the god is seated with a sceptre and Victory. Commodus identified himself with Hercules (divine son of Jupiter) and apparently issued a coin with the inscription IOVI IVVENI, and had the image of the god in his own likeness. Pescennius Niger had a type inscribed IOVI PRAE. ORBIS, honoring Jupiter as the rule of the world. And so froth. Under Diocletian, Jupiter restores the world and (if I under- stand correctly) Diocletion used the epithet "Jovius" which with the special protection of Jupiter, gave the ruler a divine nimbus, which the Byzantines would later convert to a Christian symbol. Most of this appears to be from numismatic evidence. I am not sure it is what you meant or were looking for, but perhaps it will be useful.

Date: Tue, 11 Jan 1994
From: "thomas d. mccreight"
Subject: Re: Jupiter as emperor?

My text is not handy, so I can't check it for you, but I seem to recall a remark in Ov. _Met._1 to the effect that Jupiter's palace on Olympus was the Palatine of heaven.

Date: Tue, 11 Jan 1994
From: Daniel Curley
Subject: Jupiter / Emperor

You might try, as a start, Ovid's metamorphoses Book I. Vv. 168-176 = Mt. Olympus as Palatine Vv. 199-205 = God's reaction equated to public outcry at civil distress (esp. sanguine Caesareo, although which Caesar is still debatable).

Date: Tue, 11 Jan 1994
From: Aara Suksi
Subject: Re: Jupiter as emperor?

pm Jupiter is portrayed comically as emperor in Apuleius' *Metamorphoses* Book V, in the story of Cupid and Psyche.

Date: Wed, 12 Jan 1994
From: John Younger
Subject: Emperor as Juppiter

There's a seated statue of Augustus, complete with globe & sceptre, if I recall rightly (I do e-mail at home), now where? the Capitoline Museum? (I'll look it up when I go in to campus today) -- the statue is obviously modeled on that of Zeus at Olympia (as are seated representations of the bearded Christian god).

Date: Thu, 13 Jan 1994
From: "Martin F. Kilmer"
Subject: And So Froth

On 'Jupiter as emperor': Since the general whose triumph was being celebra ted was clothed as Juppiter Optimus Maximus, emperors (who alone, from Augustus on, were entitled to Triumph) in triumphal garb always 'look like' Juppiter - i.e. wear his regalia - and the viewer is necessarily (at least if s/he is a Ro man) led to equate emperor and Jupiter. So the question 'who looks like whom' in this context must be answered 'well, they both do'. I think that reading the literature on the triumph, and examining depictions of the Triumph, would probably be the best way into this stuff.

Date: Thu, 13 Jan 1994
From: "Hans-Friedrich O. Mueller"
Subject: I.O.M., Tiberius, Epulum Iouis

Two more interesting items on Jupiter and emperors. 1. In the preface to his Facta et Dicta Memorabilia, Valerius Maximus opts to take his start from Tiberius, in contrast to the "prisci oratores" who took theirs "ab Iove optimo maximo." Valerius appeals to relgion to justify his choice: Te igitur huic coepto, penes quem hominum deorumque consensus maris ac terrae regimen esse uoluit, certissima salus patriae, Caesar, inuoco, cuius caelesti prouidentia uirtutes, de quibus dicturus sum, benignissime fouentur, uitia seuerissime uindicantur: nam si prisci oratores ab Ioue optimo maximo bene orsi sunt, si excellentissimi uates a numine aliquo principia traxerunt, mea paruitas eo iustius ad fauorem tuum decucurrerit, quo cetera diuinitas opinione colligitur, tua praesenti fide paterno auitoque sideri par uidetur, quorum eximio fulgore multum caerimoniis nostris inclitae claritatis accessit: reliquos enim deos accepimus, Caesares dedimus. [You, therefore, at the beginning of this my work, in whose power the convictions of mortals and gods alike unite in their desire that with you the command of both sea and land should abide, upon you, staunchest guardian of our nation, O Caesar, I call, by whose godlike provision the virtues I am about to describe have been most liberally succored, but by whom vices have most rigidly been revenged. Surely it must be obvious that if orators of old could take their beginnings from Jupiter Most High, Most Great, if the most exalted prophets and poets could derive the source of their inspiration from some divine power, then so much the more rightly does my own insignificant self rush to your side, especially since the other divine powers are worshipped merely on the basis of belief, but you by your mere presence confirm our faith like the stars your father and grandfather have become whose glorious illumination has added such celebrated brilliance to our religion: because, although we inherited all the other gods, we ourselves bestowed the Caesars.] On the other hand, as Georg Wissowa, Religion und Kultus der Roemer, 2nd ed. (Munich: Beck, 1912), p. 128, points out: "der Iuppiter O. M. ist bis zum Untergange des roemischen Reiches die goettliche Verkoerperung seines Bestandes geblieben: er nimmt ausnahmslos den ersten Platz in den langen Goetterreihen." 2. It was a long-standing tradition to dress I. O. M. up as a triumphator for the epulum Iouis. W. Warde Fowler, The Roman Festivals in the Time of the Republic (London: MacMillan, 1899), pp. 217-218, describes the scene: "This epulum was one of the most singular and striking scenes in Roman public life. It began with a sacrifice; probably a white heifer; the images of the gods were decked out as for a feast, and the face of Jupiter painted red with minium, like that of a triumphator. Jupiter had a couch, and Juno and Minerva each a sella, and the meal went on in their presence." The epulum Iouis maintained its importance during the empire, as Wissowa, Kultus, p. 128, also points out: "Der capitolinische Kult hat auch in der Kaiserzeit seine hervorragende politische Bedeutung behalten."
Culled from classics.log9401b.
Copyright © 2001 David Meadows
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